Climatology research involves creating a uniform climate data set over a long period of time. To do this, observation data sets are collected from many different data sources, standardized, and made into a homogeneous data set by running it through algorithms. For example, a climatology data set that could be created by microwave science instruments would be weather patterns over the United States for a period of a few years. This helps researchers look at past trends in the data, which can help then uncover things like seasonal variations and help them improve models.
Links to climatology information: